Publications — Environmental Health

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Army Operational Noise Management Program Review
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Apr. 1999 / Publication #0110

Abstract: Without question, noise is an unavoidable by-product of running a trained and ready army. However, there is also a growing recognition that noise has a significant impact on our installations and the communities surrounding them. While we cannot alter the physical properties of noise, we can influence it and manage it through our planning and operations efforts. Since 1993, Army Environmental Policy Institute (AEPI) studies have documented the potential threat that noise poses to readiness training. The purpose of this paper is to examine previous related studies and trend analyses, existing perceptions on the issue, noise claims data, case study analyses, and legislative trends.

Emissions Related to Munitions Firing: A Case Study of Nitrogen Oxides, Volatile Organic Compounds, and Energetic Residue from Detonable Munitions
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Aug. 2000

Abstract: Overall, the detonation of munitions represents an environmentally clean reaction. Six kilotons of energetic materials were expanded in case study during training in 1996.

Endocrine Disruptor Chemicals as a Rising Compliance Issue
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Abstract: Certain classes of chemicals foreign to the human body can interfere with endocrine hormonal systems. Hormones are the master controllers of biochemical processes. A wide range of pathological conditions can ensue at all stages of life. Research has shown these or similar chemicals to be increasing in natural and man-made environments. Some research indicates that wildlife is exhibiting the destructive effects of hormone disruption caused by man-made chemicals. The claim is made that human health is already being adversely affected. Many information gaps exist. Major research and screening programs are under way around the world that could well lead to banning or curtailed use for many heavily used chemicals. Makers and users of chemicals can avoid the embarrassing surprises experienced with previous new environmental issues and control programs by joining in the ongoing issue-framing scientific, legislative, and regulatory processes.

The HALF Imperative: Foundation for Improving the Health of the Force
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May 2002

Abstract: A smaller active duty force and dramatically increased operation tempo have made the Reserve Components essential to accomplishing the Army's missions. This requires a degree of readiness that depends on high levels of health. Currently, the baseline health status of the Reserve Components is not known, even though these members are being activated at increasing numbers to serve in setting where the environmental impact on health may be significant. Future decisions regarding force health protection and deployment policies will be based on analysis of scientific data on health and the environment. Capturing baseline health status is collected during the busy preparations for deployment. This has proven highly ineffective and exceptionally expensive.

Health Risk Communication in the Anthrax Vaccine Immunization Program: Lessons for the Future
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Apr. 2001 / Publication #901

Abstract: When Secretary of Defense William Cohen announced that all military service members would be vaccinated with the anthrax vaccine, few anticipated the widespread reluctance to accept his directive. Service members were already required to take several vaccinations and this new force protection measure involved a vaccine that had been approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 1970. In response to the unanticipated opposition on the Internet and in the press, an extensive information campaign was developed. This paper suggests that a more proactive educational program with a greater utilization of health risk communication techniques could have reduced much of the negative reaction to the anthrax vaccine. Such techniques as early use of focus groups and surveys could have measured the effectiveness and comprehension of the message. Early evaluations could have identified challenges involving trust, credibility, and organizational biases, which appeared as the program matured. More focused application of effective health risk communication techniques in the creation of the Anthrax Vaccine Immunization Program would have reduced the amount of controversy generated by the program. Lessons learned by studying the development and implementation of health risk communication in the anthrax program can be applied to other military programs, including not only those involving vaccines, but also those having to do with controversial issues such as depleted uranium rounds or toxic exposure standards.

Installations and Watersheds: An Examination of Changes in Water Management on Army Installations
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Oct. 2000 / Publication #1000

Abstract: On February 19, 1998, the 25th anniversary of the Clean Water Act, the federal government launched the Clean Water Action Plan (CWAP) ( The CWAP emphasizes the need to address polluted run-off, enhance natural resource stewardship, and protect public health by regulating waters that are sources of drinking water, and recommends using an integrated watershed-by-watershed approach to water resource management. The CWAP also emphasizes social aspects of water management, encouraging public participation, development of multi-agency and public-private partnerships, and improvement of information sources, endorsing the citizen's right to know regarding management planning issues.

Longitudinal Tracking of Health Risks Associated with the Soldier's Lifecycle Assignment
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Mar. 2004

Abstract: One of three strategic goals on the US Army Medical Department (AMEDD) Balanced Score Card is "to protect and sustain a healthy and medically protected force". Outcomes that measure this objective are healthy soldiers protected from injury and disease throughout their assignment lifecycle. In the last decade many strides have been made to maximize health, fitness, and medical preparedness of forces being deployed, while minimizing disease and injury risks during deployments. Although, today we have a broader understanding that the successful execution of this strategy depends on the effective conduct of comprehensive military medical surveillance (CMMS), the Army has made considerable efforts in various areas and in response to the demand has responded with several medical and health surveillance initiatives. This research paper will provide and overview of Department of Defense (DoD), Army and AMEDD interim electronic outpatient records in place and their current application and will discuss the Longitudinal Health Risk Assessment Program (LHRAP) and provide recommendations. The LHRAP is a proposed evidence-based screening and risk reduction program designed to decrease morbidity and mortality associated with chronic health risks such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and smoking. The program addresses cardiovascular and cancer risks for active duty soldiers aged 35 and older.

Mending the Seams in Force Protection: From the Pentagon to the Foxhole
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Jul. 1998 / Publication #0089

Abstract: Disease and nonbattle injuries (DNBI) are major causes of attrition in an armed force. Army doctrine lists four dynamics of combat power: leadership, firepower, maneuver, and protection. As the bulwark against DNBI, protection includes four components that address operations security; maintenance of health, morale and equipment; safety; and avoidance of fratricide. Unfortunately, protection programs have evolved in piecemeal fashion to address new problems, emerging technology, or through forceful proponents building empires. As a result, there is a multitude of fragmented programs with the aggregate of the whole rarely being focused on a given problem. This is compounded by the complexity of "stovepipe" chains of command which impede the horizontal integration of data and contribute to duplicated efforts. The author advocates a seamless protection program entitled "Environmental Security" with consolidation of all the components under a deputy Chief of Staff, Environmental Security (DCS-ES). This structure would emulate the structure of the Army Secretariat, Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army - Environment, Safety, Occupational Health (DASA(ESOH)). The DCS-ES would be expected to consolidate protection programs and implement the appropriate changes in leadership, staffing, proponency, organization, and training. The author concludes by recommending a program to market and implement the concept.

Military Noise and the Public Element: Domestic and International Issues
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Sep. 1996 / Publication #297

Abstract: From all corners of the globe, the public has been influenced by the military noise. However, what are the most common sources of concern and how has the public reacted to them? What changes and trends can we see emerging from the past twenty years. More importantly, when can they tell us about public opinion and reaction in the future?

This paper examines the major issues related to military noise and the public element (in two separate time slices) for the years 1975 to 1990 and 1991 to the present.

Mission Area Guide to Lead Exposure Control
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Mar. 1996

Abstract: This guide provides information needed to comply with Federal, State, and local laws governing the use of lead and lead compounds on military installations. Federal regulation of lead is extensive and governs lead as a pollutant in air, water, soil, and during industrial use.

Some states have issued their own regulations governing lead use. In a nutshell, the report can be summarized for the military commander in the familiar form of a five paragraph field order.

Nanotechnology: The Next Industrial Revolution - Military and Societal Implications
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Jan. 2005

Abstract: This paper will examine nanotechnology and its potential impact on the American soldier. Its goal is to create a document that is a readable, interesting and influential aid to senior policy makers. Nanotechnology will have an impact equaling or exceeding that of motorization, airpower or computers on the manner in which wars are waged.

National Guard Weapons of Mass Destruction Civil Support Teams - Are They Ready and Capable to Support the Global War on Terrorism?
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Apr. 2004

Abstract: The Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) Civil Support Teams (CST) were created under the auspices of the Nunn-Lugar-Deomenici Amendment to the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for Fiscal Year (FY) 1997 which advocated training first-responders to deal with a WMD terrorist incident. The military was tasked to develop and maintain at least one domestic terrorism rapid response team composed of members of the armed forces, capable of aiding federal, state, and local officials in the detection, neutralization, containment, disassembly, and disposal of weapons of mass destruction. So far, Congress has authorized a total of 44 CSTs. The first 10 teams were established in the NDAA for FY 1999. Seventeen additional teams were authorized in FY 2000 and five more in FY 2001 to assist local and state authorities in assessing and evaluating a WMD attack. The first thirty-two have been certified by the Department of Defense to date. An additional 12 teams were included in the Defense Appropriations Bill for FY 2004. The CSTs are located across the country and eventually all 53 State and Territory Governors and the District of Columbia may have one at their disposal. Because of this accelerated timeline and evolution, the CSTs were rapidly developed and pressed into service very early in their life cycle development.

Nonpoint Source Discharge Control on Non-Buildup Military Lands
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Oct. 1999 / Publication #0800B

Abstract: This volume presents historical information and analyses describing the legislative status of nonpoint source water pollution discharges from unimproved lands, particularly military lands. Increasing emphasis at national and state levels on controlling pollutant discharges from nonpoint sources and on watershed management suggests that federal lands may become subject to compliance legislation in the relatively near future. The Army Environmental Policy Institute has tracked developments on this topic for six years. The pair of studies combined in this report provides reference materials and observations through September 1999 to help military land and water managers understand the issues in preparation for possible new compliance requirements. This gap in Clean Water Act coverage could be closed at any time. When, as with this case, specific language has been embedded in proposed congressional legislation for several years, the concept usually gets passed into law. Alternatively in this case, any legislative loosening of federal sovereign immunity could indirectly give states power to impose standards and procedures on federal agencies for nonpoint source runoff. The question is more when than whether.

Risk Prioritization
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Jun. 1992

Abstract: In industrialized countries throughout the world, environmental concerns are exerting a moderating influence over consumption of natural resources for economic and societal gain. This influence is likely to increase as environmental problems become more global and require international cooperation. Governments are beginning to treat ecological stress induced by human activities on a par with human health concerns. This will have profound implications for the formation of future environmental policy by regulatory agencies in the United States and abroad.

Sustainability Report 2009

Sustainability Report 2009
The Army offers its second annual sustainability report to both inform and engage its primary shareholders on progress to embody the principles of sustainability in 2008. read more (PDF)

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