Publications — Overseas/International

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Analysis of United Nations Millennium Summit Speeches
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Apr. 2001 / Publication #0401A

Abstract: This study compiles and analyzes the key points made by the heads of State at the UN Millennium Summit, Sept 6-8, 2000

Assessing National Guard Readiness to Respond to Weapons of Mass Destruction Terrorist Events
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Jul. 2003

Abstract: There continues to be discussion about the military's readiness to assist civil authorities in response to weapons of mass destruction (WMD) incidents. Some suggest that the new demands of homeland security are so significant that total reorganization of the National Guard is required. Others cite the National Guard's long history of supporting traditional military missions, homeland defense and consequence management as proof that major reorganization is not necessary. This paper proposes that scenario-based analysis provides a method to help ascertain and achieve required levels of readiness. Broad, unsubstantiated assumptions and conclusions have not provided enough specificity or rationale for meaningful decision making. This paper discusses the traditional role of the National Guard in homeland security and the probability of a WMD terrorist event. The paper then proposes a scenario-based model that analyzes the probability of a specific WMD usage and its potential impact on the civilian community. From this model, one can identify military missions unique to WMD consequence management. Analysis can then determine specific readiness deficiencies and recommendations for corrections. In this paper, the terrorist use of a radiological dispersion device (RDD) is modeled to illustrate the concept of scenario-based readiness planning. The paper concludes with specific recommendations to improve military readiness for response to RDDs.

The Botswana Defense Force in the Struggle for an African Environment
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Abstract: This is the story of an African success. It describes how Botswana, an obscure nation in southern Africa, employs its capable, professional army to secure its wildlife resources - a precious heritage of all mankind. This narrative speaks well for a government and an army on a continent where officials and soldiers are widely held in disrepute.

China, The Environmental Dragon - The Environmental Security Implications of China's Rise to Great-Power Status
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Sep. 2000 / Publication #0900A

Abstract: China, already one of the world's major powers, is a serious candidate for 21st-century great power status, given its size, population, economic dynamism, military prowess, and relative natural resource availability. But China also is the center of some of the planet's most serious, far-reaching, and growing environmental problems.

Considerations for the Development of a DoD Environmental Policy for Operations Other Than War
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May 1997

Abstract: Since the end of the Cold War, the Department of Defense has evolved its war fighting strategy from traditional principles of land warfare to a new and decidedly more complex military strategy involving military operations other than war (OOTW). The strategic principles of OOTW require U.S. forces to achieve "full spectrum dominance" across a wide range of military operations, ranging from peace missions to operations short of war. Political imperatives are closely intertwined with this new military strategy, and the ultimate success of these missions may depend on a political outcome as much as a military victory.

In the past decade, concerns about the degradation of the world's environment and dwindling natural resources have become a politically sensitive issue, especially during operations other than war. The Department of Defense has made great strides in integrating environmental stewardship in all its military actions. Despite this emphasis on environmental protection, existing U.S. environmental laws and military regulations do not adequately cover OOTW. As a result, DoD has no strategic environmental policy, either Joint or Service, upon which it can base its environmental doctrine in OOTW.

This paper represents the first phase of an environmental policy development project being conducted by the Army Environmental Policy Institute (AEPI). This report assesses the need for a joint environmental policy for OOTW, identifies the key policy issues, and emphasizes the need to integrate joint doctrine on environment, health, and safety issues during OOTW, and is intended to serve as the foundation for a Department of Defense Instruction on Environmental Policy for OOTW.

Defining Environmental Security: Implications for the U.S. Army
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Dec. 1998 / Publication #1298

Abstract: The concept of environmental security is gaining interest and attention worldwide. Yet, little consensus exists concerning how to define environmental security and who should take a policy leadership role to address environmental security threats.

When a Millennium Project global assessment of future developments conducted in 1996 identified this issue as increasingly important but poorly understood, the Project welcomed the opportunity to engage a cross-section of international experts to provide a better understanding of this emerging concept.

Environmental Indicators: Regional Stability and Theater Engagement Planning
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Oct. 2001 / Publication #1001A

Abstract: Environmental stress is an important, but indirect, contributor to instability and potential conflict. It acts in combination with other socio-economic and institutional factors to produce the effects that lead to instability. Several theoretical and mathematical models of state instability and failure have been developed but are too complex for practical application. Thus, a simpler framework, the Stability Pyramid, is proposed to better identify and communicate the status of national and regional instability to geographic Commander-in-Chiefs, country teams, and ambassadors.

This framework builds upon the positive linkages found between the environment, economic development, and state of institutional governance. Regional and international efforts to develop harmonized indicators and indices of environmental performance and sustainable development were reviewed in order to develop a Core Set of indicators for the Stability Pyramid framework that are believed representative of these multi-dimensional and complex linkages. This framework was then applied to reference countries representing three different regions within the United States European Command in an effort to determine its utility as an early warning tool in assisting policy makers to better identify, plan, and prioritize theater engagement activities and applicable interventions.

Environmental Security and Engagement in Central Command
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Aug. 2000 / Publication #0800A

Abstract: This research paper looks at the relationship between environmental security (ES) and peacetime engagement and discusses ways in which these can be integrated to promote regional stability and enhance U.S. security.

The paper begins by noting that both the National Security Strategy (NSS) and the National Military Strategy (NMS) refer to the environment as an important issue and emphasize engagement as a critical method for achieving U.S. security objectives. After providing an overview of the broad concepts method of ES and engagement, the paper focuses on the Central Command (CENTCOM) area of responsibility (AOR), which encompasses four sub-regions: the Arabian Peninsula and Iraq; the Horn of Africa; the Northern Red Sea; and South and Central Asia. The environment and ES issues are critical to the quality of life and long-term economic and political stability of the nations in the AOR. Prevention of mitigation of ES-related regional instability and transboundary threats will enhance the welfare and security of the U.S.

This paper proposes specific ways of leveraging ES issues to initiate or continue a variety of non-threatening bilateral or multilateral engagement activities, thus enhancing communication and cooperation between the U.S. and the nations in the CENTCOM AOR. The CENTCOM theater engagement plan (TEP) is reviewed with a focus on U.S. security objectives that can be aided or achieved using ES issues. Specific ES issues within the AOR are then briefly presented and analyzed. This is followed by a discussion of Department of Defense (DoD) and non-DoD organizations that can and should interact to achieve an effective ES engagement policy. Finally, the paper provides a comprehensive, multidisciplinary ES "activities menu" that can be used to enhance the overall engagement plan, minimize transboundary ES threats and achieve U.S. security objectives.

Environmental Security Engagement - A Role for the Reserve Component
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May 2000

Abstract: The NMS identified environmental security as an engagement tool of the DoD. Implementation of environmental security engagement activities occurs at a global and regional (mil-to-mil) level. Doctrine for establishing this program has not been developed or fielded to the Unified Combatant Commands. Because doctrine integrating environmental security into all operational and logistical regulations is incomplete, resource support (both manpower and funding) has been limited. The greatest potential impact to the new and re-emerging democratic countries is at the soldier-to-soldier level. Engaging at this level ensures the strengths of our democratic institutions and environmental ethic are integrated into host nation military operations. The Reserve Component is an excellent source of personnel to accomplish most environmental security missions. With power projection platforms of the Active Component, the Reserve Component provides the experienced personnel on-the-ground to successfully complete engagement activities in environmental security. The Reserve Component has unique capabilities with established military expertise, environmental technical experience from civilian occupations, and political negotiation experience gained over years of participation in local community politics. All of these factors combine to provide a force of unique and excellent credentials to fulfill the environmental security role of the Department of Defense.

Environmental, Security and Infrastructure in Poland: Impacts of the Demise of the Soviet Union
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Oct. 1996

Abstract: As the largest central European country that borders the Baltic Sea, Poland possesses a great amount of natural resources and a diverse landscape ranging from the "flat plains and gently rolling hills" which cover most of the country to the rugged mountains which form the southern boundary of Poland. As a country that formed part of the former Communist Bloc, Poland has had to endure a Communist form of government since the end of World War II. The fall of the Soviet Union has resulted in an increasing shift towards becoming a Democracy as evident by a large non-Communist victory during its first elections held in 1989.

Although this shift toward democratization has resulted in improved social and political conditions, the Soviet legacy of unregulated industrial development and environmental neglect has left Poland a country with environmental problems it must deal with for many years to come.

Environmental Security in the Danube River Basin: Policy Implications for the United States
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Please use the contact page to obtain the CD.

Publication #1199

Abstract: The paper examines the environmental security issues having the most likely potential in impact stability within the Danube River Basin, and recommends area for future policy consideration and emphasis. Knowledge of such issues allows for a more proactive and better coordinated response in helping to ensure US national interests in the regions are protected.

Environmental Security: United Nations Doctrine for Managing Environmental Issues in Military Actions Volume I
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Jul. 2000 / Publication #0700A

Abstract: A three-year international assessment of global changes conducted by the Millennium Project1 identified fifteen global challenges facing the world, reaching into most facets of change, from prospective water shortages to moral and ethical issues. Of the fifteen challenges, six are environmentally related. Environmental threats may well outweigh military threats in the future. This report is an investigation into the roles that might be required of the United Nations and related international organizations and the environmental standards to which they should abide, as well as the conventions and protocols that might be involved in the resolution of future threats to environmental security. Particular emphasis is placed on exploring current and potential UN doctrine for managing environmental issues in UN peacekeeping operations.

Environmental Security: United Nations Doctrine for Managing Environmental Issues in Military Actions Volume II
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Jul. 2000 / Publication #0700A

Abstract: Same as above...

Environmental Crimes in Military Actions and the International Criminal Court (ICC) - United Nations Perspectives
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Apr. 2001 / Publication #0502A

Abstract: This study complies and analyzes key issues, concerns and documents regarding the International Criminal Court and how it might function with respect to allegations of environmental crimes in war. The consensus of contributors is that the probabilities of jurisdiction and action are small. The study limits itself to matters of environmental concerns, not the full range of possible applications of the Court.

Parameters, Summer 2006
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Summer 2006

Abstract: In this issue of Parameters, the article "The Environment, the US Military, and Southern Africa" briefly examines US engagement on environmental issues with the countries of Botswana, Namibia, and South Africa, locating military involvement in the wider context of overall United States environmental partnerships. The author argues that all of these efforts could achieve better results if they were more coherently focused and integrated. The research was sponsored, in part, by AEPI in partnership with the US Air Force Institute for National Security Studies (INSS). While not advocating a lead role for the military, the article concludes that a more concerted engagement on environmental issues could make a contribution both to regional stability and to better military-to-military relations with regional partners.

Security Implications of the Southeast Anatolia Project: The Euphrates Triangle
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Publication #0079

Abstract: For more than 4,000 years, lands irrigated by the Tigris and the Euphrates have been the scene of violent conflict. History has been shaped by geography and in particular, access to water. The Southeast Anatolia Project in Turkey (referred to as the "GAP") is a major reclamation and hydropower project that has been a government priority since 1961. When complete, the project will consist of twenty-one dams, and irrigate an additional two million hectares of land in southeast Turkey. The GAP has direct consequences for Iraq and Syria, both countries are heavily dependent on the waters of the Tigris and the Euphrates. The impact of the GAP could ultimately reduce the flow of fresh water to Syria and to Iraq (Kolars and Mitchell 1991). These transboundary water issues have the potential to further destabilize an already tense region as the GAP is reaches full development in the next twenty years.

Understanding International Environmental Security: A Strategic Military Perspective
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Cover (PDF, 20kb)
Report Form (PDF, 92kb)
Volume A (PDF, 80kb)
Volume B (PDF, 2.3mb)
Volume C (PDF, 1.4mb)

Nov. 2000 / Publication #1100A

Abstract: This paper analyzes the concepts, threats and opportunities. It uses a five-step development: paint an overview of the significance of ES; examine the knotty problems of ES definition; provide a "primer" in lay terms of the cross-cutting population trends and scientifically based environmental issues of climate change, land use and water use; using a geographic information systems analysis approach, analyze the total complex and list proposed, appropriate military missions; and summarize the national security implications of ES issues with recommended actions.

Workshops: Using Sustainability to Build Stability in Africa
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Abstract: The purpose of these workshops is to identify and discuss the factors that are currently shaping the strategic environment in Africa and to look at how Army capabilities can impact on those factors. Bringing together regional specialists, experts in the areas of environmental, social and financial sustainability and the Army planners, the sessions will foster a better understanding of the strategic environment, regionally unique issues, Army capabilities and goals.

Sustainability Report 2009

Sustainability Report 2009
The Army offers its second annual sustainability report to both inform and engage its primary shareholders on progress to embody the principles of sustainability in 2008. read more (PDF)

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