Publications — Sustainablity

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Agroterrorism: Preparedness and Response, Challenges for the Departments of Defense and Army
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Abstract: Despite the identification of agriculture as one of the critical infrastructure sectors of the United States and the importance of food security being stressed within Homeland Security Presidential Directives (HSPDs), resources and energy applied to aggressively defend against agroterrorism within the larger scheme of domestic security programs has been decidedly skewed. The difficult work of providing definitive policy guidance and adequate resources to counter the threat of a deliberate attack on one of our critical infrastructures has not been commensurate with the level of possible damage to our economy, national confidence and standing within the greater global community. Though not specifically tasked within the confines of existing Presidential Directives, the Department of Defense and subsequently the Department of the Army have an obligation as supporting agencies and signatories to the National Response Plan to prepare to support all national response efforts and defend against this threat. This paper addresses the concepts of agroterrorism, current initiatives within government, private industry and academia, and identifies the policy and resource gaps impacting national preparedness for such an attack. Strategic impacts to our nation and the ability to sustain our engagement in the Global War on Terror is also discussed.

Analysis of Installation-Level Planning Requirements
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May 2004

Abstract: Management of real property facilities, training ranges, and the natural environment at Army installations is influenced by many factors, both internal and external. Guiding this management is a collection of plans written to aid decision makers. The planning procedures and contents of the planning documents are specified in Army Regulations (AR), Army Pamphlets (PAM), and other guidance documents. Addressing this issue requires an understanding of current policy and practice, as well as an understanding of how to enhance integration in planning. This white paper describes the results of research conducted at the policy level.

Analysis of U.S. Army Solid Waste Management
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Jul. 1992 / Publication #0004

Abstract: This study identifies national non-hazardous solid waste trends and key Army issues and concerns. It emphasizes ways to promote integrated management, including appropriate data as well as planning and management tools. Integrated management is defined as a coordinated effort to implement the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency's pollution prevention hierarchy, which focuses on approaches to: reduce waste at the source, recycle, and develop innovative waste disposal programs. The study focuses on four areas of Army concern: improving methods for waste characterization and data collection, organization and management to facilitate integrated solid waste management (SWM), incentives for improving SWM, and better training and communication. It discusses ways to combine an Armywide framework for planning with program guidance and tools for installation planning. The analysis indicates that the Army should initiate universal SWM planning based on common definitions and data elements, with particular focus on integrated management and innovative approaches. It defines a spectrum of options, from highly decentralized programs to more uniform policy and programs with central control and guidance. Options are evaluated in terms of four criteria: improving the Army's knowledge and understanding of solid waste, consistency with the pollution prevention hierarchy, cost-effectiveness, and demonstrating leadership. Finally, for each alternative presented, the study outlines associated implementation issues and needs that would have to be addressed as follow-on activities.

Army Ecosystem Management Policy Study
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Mar. 1997 / Publication #0397

Abstract: Each of the products presented in this document describes a portion of the issues presented by the current direction of the Departments of Defense and Army toward implementing ecosystem management as the guiding principle for sustainable management of lands for training and testing.

Collectively, the reports represent the results of a multi-year effort on the part of AEPI to examine the emerging concept of ecosystem management as a set of guiding principles for Army land management and planning. Together, they help move the Army ever closer toward the ultimate goal of an overall environmental program that simultaneously conserves natural resources and enhances mission readiness capabilities.

Department of Defense Ecosystem Management Policy Evaluation
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Aug. 2002

Abstract: DoD announced the implementation of an ecosystem management approach for the management of installation lands in a 1994 Policy Memorandum from the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense (OUSD). The installation Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan (INRMP) is the tool for implementing ecosystem management. To date, there has been no retrospective review across DoD of implementation of ecosystem management. The Legacy Resource Management Program and Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army for Environment, Safety, and Occupational Health (DASA(ESOH)) supported the Army Environmental Policy Institute (AEPI) in studying ecosystem management implementation and providing recommendations for improvement strategies and adjustments to current DoD ecosystem management policy and Service guidance.

Without this examination, subsequent policy expressions by senior leadership will lack a sound basis. The goal of this study is to provide insights into the level of ecosystem management implemented across the military Services. The objectives include performing a gap analysis of the individual military Services' conservation policy, regulations, and guidance to determine if they carry through the requirements set out by DoDI 4715.3; developing a protocol to evaluate ecosystem management implementation; and applying the protocol through case study.

Field Study of Solid Waste Reduction, Management, and Disposal Issues at Fort Benning, Georgia
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Feb. 1998 / Publication #0085

Abstract: The AEPI has recently commissioned a number of solid waste studies. This paper is a continuation of those studies, and is meant to provide detailed information through an in-depth case study of Fort Benning, with emphasis on the identification of significant management issues. Specifically, the focus of this project was to review and document existing policies; document current waste management issues, practices, and facilities; and find ways to improve coordination between those organizations involved in waste disposal, reduction, and recycling at Fort Benning.

Foresight, July 2007: Climate Change and Army Sustainability
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Jul. 2007

Abstract: Climate change is widely accepted by the world's scientific community. Numerous aspects of climate change remain under debate, but the basic premise - that the planet is warming due to increases in greenhouse gases in the planet's atmosphere - is widely supported.

Green Construction: Efficient Design for Military Facilities
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Sep. 2000 / Publication #0140

Abstract: The Department of Defense (DoD), in its military design and construction procedures, is struggling with how to adjust to quality and budgetary constraints, while providing its workforce, the men and women who guard this nation, with office, housing, and maintenance buildings that comply with energy efficient standards. The paradigms of environmental design, sustainable design, or green construction within the building professions of architecture, engineering, and construction provides for extremely broad applications toward practical use. The definitions and their approaches toward the final structure produce fragmented policies on the best approach toward producing a practical energy efficient building - which, in reality, needs to be the end.

Integrating Environmental Impact Assessment with Master Planning at Army Installations
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May 2002 / Publication #0902A

Abstract: Current Army compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) is largely procedural in focus. In addition, much like other federal agencies, the Army typically conducts environmental impact assessment (EIA) for individual projects, rather than long range plans, where earlier and more strategic decisions are made. ...The results presented in this paper support continued efforts to encourage integration, as early and effective integration of EIA into master planning can improve organizational outcomes such as support for the installation mission and NEPA compliance.

Maintaining a Trained and Ready Army from an Environmental Perspective
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Apr. 2002

Abstract: Environmental factors strike at the very heart of the Army's training and readiness mission. As proud environmental stewards, the Army strives to minimize the long-term effects and permanent damage to all facets of the environment that may result of pursuing this effort. Since it is recognized that environmental issues can lead to serious training restrictions and adversely affect missions, an overall environmental strategy must be fully developed and integrated in how the Army conducts its business in peace and war.

On Vitrifying Wastes using a Plasma Arc Torch
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Aug. 2002 / Publication #0802E

Abstract: This study reviews the state of the art regarding plasma arc torch vitrification of waste. It provides background by describing the history and environmental benefits of vitrification and the history and design of plasma arc torches. It reviews current uses of a plasma torch to heat ex-situ furnaces, and develops a case study showing how such a furnace could be used by the Army to pyrolyze scrap tires. This pyrolysis process would benefit the Army by providing an additional source of revenue and ensuring an environmental solution to the destruction of the 16 million scrap tires the Army collects each year. An immediate research product is a computer model, which allows in-situ heat transfer to be investigated. These model results provide important constraints on in-situ applications of plasma arc technology. Finally, laboratory scale experiments and associated analytical work allowed direct study of in-situ vitrification using a plasma arc torch.

Policy and Implementation Strategies for Army Land Asset Conversion and Land Exchange
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May 1997 / Publication #0064

Abstract: Federal land management agencies have authority to initiate or cooperate in exchanges of land and interests, lease lands, enter into agreements regarding the use of land, and allow use by permit. In an era of reduced spending, the Army and DoD may benefit from exploring policy options such as these for acquiring lands through means other than the traditional fee-simple purchase. This paper explores a number of land acquisition alternatives and concludes that a "window of opportunity'' exists for the Army and DoD to work cooperatively with other land management agencies to improve military training and resource conservation opportunities, while minimizing cost.

Policy Implications of Emerging Ecological Technologies
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Mar. 1997 / Publication #497

Abstract: The two products presented in this document describe a portion of the issues presented by the current direction and Army toward identifying, developing, and applying technology-based solutions to military natural resource management issues.

Together, the reports represent a portion of the results of a multi-year effort on the part of the Army Environmental Policy Institute (AEPI) to examine emerging conservation technologies and their implications for Army land management and planning. They help move the Army ever closer toward the ultimate goal of an overall environmental program that simultaneously conserves natural resources and enhance mission readiness capabilities.

Pollution Prevention Case Studies: Implications for Army Institutional Processes
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Jun. 1994 / Publication #1194

Abstract: This analysis of case studies of specific pollution prevention actions at seven Army installations addresses institutional factors, rather than applicable technologies. Reviewing records and field interviews produced data on both institutional facilitators and inhibitors to change.

This work examines the interplay of factors in management, motivation, and procurement. It also objectivity demythologizes some phenomena and conditions often subjectively claims to exist by partisans who provide no evidence for their assertions. Policy suggestions are presented for improving strengths and alleviating weakness based on data.

Pollution Prevention National Trends, Forecasts and Options for the Army
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Jun. 1997

Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to provide an initial investigation of trends in pollution prevention and the impact of these trends on the Army Environments Program. The paper will identify and analyze national trends affecting environmental issues and pollution prevention, describe current Army environment management approaches, and access the significance of these trends regardless the Army's ability to meet its responsibilities.

Procedural Integration in Support of Sustainability at Army Installations
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May 2004

Abstract: This research specifically examined three tools that are currently required for planning and decision-making at Army installations: Comprehensive Planning (Real Property Master Planning Process), Environmental Impact Assessment (compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act) and Environmental Management Systems. These procedural tools have been associated with implementation of sustainable development in a variety of contexts, and as such, the Army is in a unique position to innovate. The research utilized literature from multiple sources, including Army documents and academic journals, in an analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of each of these procedures for their applicability in support of sustainable installation policy goals.

Sustainability: Cultural Considerations
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April 2006

Abstract: The US Army is a recognized leader in developing and deploying sustainability initiatives. Business experts acknowledge that most large organizations have strong strategic planning processes but are weak in the effective execution of strategic plans. Professionals in the field of organizational psychology have recently recognized that the misalignment of strategy with existing organizational culture can contribute to strategic plan execution failures. This paper examines the development and institutionalization of sustainability within organizational culture. Several elements contributing to the advancement of a culture of sustainability are reviewed. Recommendations are made to advance a culture of sustainability throughout the institutional Army.

Sustain the Mission Project: Resource Costing and Cost-Benefit Analysis
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July 2006

Abstract: The purpose of Sustain the Mission Project (SMP) is to identify and facilitate opportunities to resource activities that implement the Army Strategy for the Environment (ASE) goals through the following: developing and demonstrating sustainability cost (and benefit) methodologies coordinating integration among Army offices in support of ASE conducting a workshop on sustainability analysis tools. SMP developed and demonstrated a costing methodology using existing Army databases and processes for evaluating key natural resources required to sustain contingency operations and unit training. This SMP costing methodology assesses the life-cycle costs of energy and water in the training base and contingency operations to sustain Army missions. In addition, the SMP energy costing methodology was used to demonstrate a sustainability cost/benefit analysis in a case study using existing Army databases/processes. SMP also identified existing methodologies that provide or calculate the costs of energy and water for Army garrisons. SMP found that sustainability is important to installations, units, and communities across the Active Army, Army Reserve, and Army National Guard. Existing Army databases, metrics, and processes can be leveraged and integrated across Army functions to conduct sustainability analysis to support ASE goals through PPBES, stationing, and investment decisions.

Today's Choices, Tomorrow's Army - What's Your Bootprint? Fostering A Sustainability Ethic in the Army.
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IMCOM Journal / Summer 2007
article begins on page 34

Abstract: Sustainability connects our activities today to those of tomorrow. Everything that we do as an Army impacts the availability of resources we will have in the future. These resources - whether financial, human capital, or land, air, water and energy - are vital to the ability of our Soldiers of the future to train, as well as to our ability to provide our Army Families the quality of life they deserve.

Use of Renewable Energy in Contingency Operations
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Abstract: The strategic importance of having an unimpeded source of energy is becoming ever more crucial. The significance of energy and the need for greater energy responsibility by the United States have been identified in several State of the Union Addresses. President Bush's 2006 State of the Union Address identified "America is addicted to oil" encouraging Federal agencies to lead the way in developing more reliable alternative energy programs. In July 2006, MG Richard Zilmer, Chief of Multi-National Forces West, identified a crucial need for "a self-sustainable energy solution" available for use by U.S. forces in Iraq. Use of renewable energy system is one way to help decrease dependency on fossil fuels and offer Warfighters alternative sources of energy to accomplish their mission. This paper will explore the institutional impediments that prevent the Army from increasing its use of renewable energy systems in Contingency Operations and make recommendations to overcome those barriers in order to enhance use of renewable energy thereby becoming less dependent of foreign oil.

Sustainability Report 2009

Sustainability Report 2009
The Army offers its second annual sustainability report to both inform and engage its primary shareholders on progress to embody the principles of sustainability in 2008. read more (PDF)

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